Dul al-Qudah is the 11th month in the Islamic calendar. It is first of the four sacred months in Islam. The others consecutively are Dhul Hijjah, Muharram and Rajab.
The Islamic calendar is known as a Lunar Calendar and months starts when the first crescent of the new moon is sighted. Allah (SWT) says in the Qur’an:
اِنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهُوْرِ عِنْدَ اللّٰهِ اثْنَا عَشَرَ شَهْرًا فِيْ كِتٰبِ اللّٰهِ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالْاَرْضَ مِنْهَآ اَرْبَعَةٌ حُرُمٌ ۭذٰلِكَ الدِّيْنُ الْقَيِّمُ ڏ فَلَا تَظْلِمُوْا فِيْهِنَّ اَنْفُسَكُمْ وَقَاتِلُوا الْمُشْرِكِيْنَ كَاۗفَّةً كَمَا يُقَاتِلُوْنَكُمْ كَاۗفَّةً ۭ وَاعْلَمُوْٓا اَنَّ اللّٰهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِيْنَ
Indeed, the number of months with Allah is twelve [lunar] months in the register of Allah [ from ] the day He created the heavens and the earth; of these, four are sacred. That is the correct religion, so do not wrong yourselves during them. And fight against the disbelievers collectively as they fight against you collectively. And know that Allah is with the righteous [ who fear Him].
The Name, ‘Dhul Qadah’:
The name is given as ‘Dhul Qadah’ and during this month as well as all of the sacred months, people abstained from war and fighting. Hence, they are the ‘sacred’ months. The main purpose of the month of Dhul Qadah was the preparation for the journey for Hajj in the coming month ahead.
Respecting Dhul Qadah in the Days of Ignorance
The Arabs used to consider Dhul Qadah a sacred month in the days of ignorance. They abstained from fighting and war and from taking revenge during this month. Even if the murder of his own father or brother was witnessed, there would be no retaliation and neither a harsh response.
Abstaining from All Wrong in these Sacred Months Allah (SWT) has forbidden injustice upon another during the sacred months. In the Qur’an it is stated:
فَلا تَظْلِمُوا فِيهِنَّ أَنْفُسَكُمْ
so do not wrong yourselves during them.
Hence, to do harm another or to do injustice during these months is considered a greater sin due to the intensity of this month. As per Qatada, injustice during these months is considered a greater sin as compared to other months, even though injustice itself is a big sin.
What is Considered Injustice During the Sacred Months?
- By leaving the obligatory deeds such as prayers
- Pursuing the impermissible or haram deeds such as indulging in obscenity, leaving ties of kinship
Dhul Qadah is the “Month of Hajj”
Dhul Qadah is considered one of the months of Hajj. Allah (SWT) has said:
الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَعْلُومَاتٌ
Hajj is [during] well-known months
One of the narrations of Bukhari states: Ibn Umar (RA) said: This means the first ten days of Shawwal, Dhul Qadah and Dhul Hijjah
Performing Umrah during Dhul Qadah
- To perform Umrah during the month of Dhul Qadah is a Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ.
- Shaykh Ibn Baaz (Rahimullah) says: To perform Umrah in the month of Dhul Qadah other than Ramadan is considered one of the best of deeds. In fact the pious predecessors have narrated that they consider Umrah during this month is preferred to performing Umrah during Ramadan.
- Imam Ibn ul Qayyim (Rahimullah) has differed in his opinion and has said, “We do istikhara regarding this for Allah (SWT) to guide us to that month is more blessed to performing Umrah.
To Fast in the Month of Dhul Qadah
Fasting is liked during the month of Dhul Qadah as per few pious predecessors. Although there is no significance of fasting in this particular month.
Significate Events of Dhu Qadah
- Allah (SWT) promised Musa (AS) of the thirty nights as per Mujahid, Masrooq and Ibn Jureej
- The ghazwa with Banu Quraidha was fought in this month
The Treaty of Hudaibiyah was signed in 6 Hijri where the following verse was revealed:
إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًا مُبِينً
Indeed, We have given you, [O Muhammad], a clear conquest
Upon this, Umar (RA) questioned, “ Oh Allah’s Messenger ﷺ . Is this is a victory?” The Prophet ﷺ replied, “Yes.”
What is to be Done During the Sacred Months?
- These months are to be respected and considered sacred
- All commands of Allah (SWT) ought to be followed during these months
- The obligatory deeds must strictly be adhered to
- To obey Allah (SWT) must be the prime goal
- One must abstain from sin especially and consciously during these months
- One must try to please Allah (SWT) and not incur His wrath by disobeying Him
Imam ibn Rajab (Rahimullah) says, “If a person is unable to perform good deeds during these months then at least he should abstain from and have mercy upon his own self. This particularly includes doing injustice.” Examples of such oppression is wronging parents and children, the spouse wronging each other, devouring the wealth of an orphan, stealing, taking bribery etc.
To Do Tawbah
The sacred months have begun so it is time that we seek forgiveness for all the sins we have committed. These include shirk, being disobedient to one’s parents, cutting ties of kinship, consuming usury, lies, talking behind another’s back (ghiba), jealousy.
Worry about racing to good deeds.
We learn that Dhul Qadah is a sacred month in which the reward for good deeds is hopefully multiplied. Let’s use this to our advantage to earn ourselves Jannah by obeying Allah (SWT). May Allah (SWT) give us the tawfique to race towards the good and forgive our sins. Aaameen.
*Translated from a post of Al-Huda International